Forming nationality adjectives and nouns from country names is not always simple in English. Use the nationality adjective ending in -ese or -ish with a plural verb, to refer to all people of that nationality (see the last two examples below). The adjective listed also often refers to the language spoken in the country, although this is not always the case.

  • Country: I live in Japan.
  • Adjective: He likes Japanese food.
  • Noun: She is Japanese.
  • She speaks Japanese.
  • The Spanish stay up late.
  • The Chinese are very hard-working.
Country Adjective Noun
Africa African an African
America American an American
Argentina Argentinian an Argentinian
Austria Austrian an Austrian
Autralia Australian an Australian
Bangladesh Bangladesh(i) a Bangladeshi
Belgium Belgian a Belgian
Brazil Brazilian a Brazilian
Britain British a Briton/Britisher
Cambodia Cambodian a Cambodian
Chile Chilean a Chilean
China Chinese a Chinese
Colombia Colombian a Colombian
Croatia Croatian a Croat
the Czech Republic Czech a Czech
Denmark Danish a Dane
England English an Englishman/Englishwoman
Finland Finnish a Finn
France French a Frenchman/Frenchwoman
Germany German a German
Greece Greek a Greek
Holland Dutch a Dutchman/Dutchwoman
Hungary Hungarian a Hungarian
Iceland Icelandic an Icelander
India Indian an Indian
Indonesia Indonesian an Indonesian
Iran Iranian an Iranian
Iraq Iraqi an Iraqi
Ireland Irish an Irishman/Irishwoman
Israel Israeli an Israeli
Jamaica Jamaican a Jamaican
Japan Japanese a Japanese
Mexico Mexican a Mexican
Morocco Moroccan a Moroccan
Norway Norwegian a Norwegian
Peru Peruvian a Peruvian
the Philippines Philippine a Filipino
Poland Polish a Pole
Portugal Portuguese a Portuguese
Rumania Rumanian a Rumanian
Russia Russian a Russian
Saudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian a Saudi, a Saudi Arabian
Scotland Scottish a Scot
Serbia Serbian a Serb
the Slovak Republic Slovak a Slovak
Sweden Swedish a Swede
Switzerland Swiss a Swiss
Thailand Thai a Thai
The USA American an American
Tunisia Tunisian a Tunisian
Turkey Turkish a Turk
Vietnam Vietnamese a Vietnamese
Wales Welsh a Welshman/Welshwoman
Yugoslavia Yugoslav a Yugoslav
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